A review of 20 years of adaptive e-learning

Luis Alfaro, Claudia Rivera, Jorge Luna-Urquizo, Elisa Castañeda, Jesús Zuñiga Cueva, María Rivera-Chavez, Francisco Fialho

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


The innovations registered in e-learning in relation to technological platforms, methodologies and techniques for their implementation and application, derived in part by the influence of social networks in the habits of users, which impacted on a greater demand for personalization of learning, absolute connectivity with other peers, unlimited access to resources and sources of information, as well as total flexibility of form, place and time of access, are becoming increasingly natural in the formal and informal areas. The natural evolution of ICT-assisted education can provide novel experiences if these are associated with direct experiences, through the use of emerging resources such as Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality. One definition of VR is: "the use of a computer-generated 3D environment, with which the user can navigate and interact, resulting in real-time simulation through one or more of the user's five senses" (Burdea & Coiffet, 2003, p. 3). According to Dutta (2015, p. 519), Augmented Reality may be viewed as a computerized extension of our reality". In the current situation, educational systems at different levels and realities have immediate demands, derived from social distancing policies dictated by government agencies in response to the Covid-19 pandemic, which makes educational practices give way to remote activities, in very short periods of time. This chapter undertakes a systematic review of the literature on elearning and adaptive e-learning and their associated emerging technologies, investigating various works carried out during the last 20 years, with the aim of establishing the state of the art and development trends, taking into account the factors that may influence their adoption and successful use.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationChallenges and Opportunities of Online Learning
PublisherNova Science Publishers, Inc.
Number of pages41
ISBN (Electronic)9781536195989
ISBN (Print)9781536194869
StatePublished - 27 Apr 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.


  • Adaptive e-learning
  • Adaptive e-learning systems
  • Augmented reality
  • E-learning
  • Learning styles
  • Virtual reality


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