Application of artificial neural network for modeling and studying in vitro genotype-independent shoot regeneration in wheat

Mohsen Hesami, Jorge A. Condori-Apfata, Maria Valderrama Valencia, Mohsen Moham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Optimizing in vitro shoot regeneration conditions in wheat is one of the important steps in successful micropropagation and gene transformation. Various factors such as genotypes, explants, and phytohormones affect in vitro regeneration of wheat, hindering the ability to tailor genotype-independent protocols. Novel computational approaches such as artificial neural networks (ANNs) can facilitate modeling and predicting outcomes of tissue culture experiments and thereby reduce large experimental treatments and combinations. In this study, generalized regression neural network (GRNN) were used to model and forecast in vitro shoot regeneration outcomes of wheat on the basis of 10 factors including genotypes, explants, and different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), kinetin (Kin), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), zeatin, and CuSO4. In addition, GRNN was linked to a genetic algorithm (GA) to identify an optimized solution for maximum shoot regeneration. Results indicated that GRNN could accurately predict the shoot regeneration frequency in the validation set with a coefficient determination of 0.78. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that shoot regeneration frequency was more sensitive to variables in the order of 2,4-D < explant < genotype > zeatin > NAA. Results of this study suggest that GRNN-GA can be used as a tool, besides experimental approaches, to develop and optimize in vitro genotype-independent regeneration protocols.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5370
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number15
StatePublished - Jul 2020
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: Financial support from USDA Hatch grant 1013073 via Purdue College of Agriculture and Purdue-UNSA Nexus Project to M.M. is greatly appreciated.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 by the authors.


  • Artificial intelligence model
  • Genotype-independent
  • In vitro regeneration
  • Optimization algorithm
  • Plant tissue culture


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