Cross-Examining Precipitation Products by Rain Gauge, Remote Sensing, and WRF Simulations over a South American Region across the Pacific Coast and Andes

Mengye Chen, Yongjie Huang, Zhi Li, Albert Johan Mamani Larico, Ming Xue, Yang Hong, Xiao Ming Hu, Hector Mayol Novoa, Elinor Martin, Renee McPherson, Jiaqi Zhang, Shang Gao, Yixin Wen, Andres Vitaliano Perez, Isaac Yanqui Morales

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Precipitation estimate is important for earth science studies and applications, and it is one of the most difficult meteorological quantities to estimate accurately. For regions such as Peru, reliable gridded precipitation products are lacking due to complex terrains and large portions of remote lands that limit the accuracy of satellite precipitation estimation and in situ measurement density. This study evaluates and cross-examines two high-resolution satellite-based precipitation products, a global rain-gauge interpolated precipitation product, and a Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model that simulated precipitation for a ten-year period from 2010 to 2019 in the Peruvian Andes region across the Pacific coast, Andes, and in the Amazon. The precipitation estimates examined in this study are the Integrated Multi-SatellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG), Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP), Global Precipitation Climatology Center product (GPCC), and a 3 km grid spacing WRF-based regional climate model (RCM) simulation. The evaluation and cross-examination were performed at sub-daily (6 h), daily, and monthly time scales, and at various spatial resolutions. The results show that the WRF simulation performs as well as, if not better than, GPM IMERG in the low precipitation and dry regions but becomes inaccurate in wet regions. GPM IMERG is more suitable for higher precipitation and wet regions, and MSWEP shows a systematic overestimation over the study area. It is therefore important to choose the most suitable precipitation product based on research needs and climate condition of the study for the challenging Peruvian Andes region.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1666
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This project was primarily supported by grant no. 20163646499 from the Universidad Nacional de San Agustin of Peru. The WRF simulation data were generated on Stampede 2 of the Texas Advanced Computing Center, which is part of the NSF Xsede Program.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.


  • multiplicative triple colocation
  • Peruvian Andes
  • satellite precipitation
  • WRF


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