The esterification of jatropha oil applying sequential ultrasonic irradiation (UR) with auto-induced temperature rise followed by adding a mixture of methanol/sulfuric acid catalyst (M/C) dose in a high temperature interval was studied. Comparisons with various doses of 5, 10, 16.6 and 25mL in different temperature intervals of 93.32 to 100°C, 108.9 to 120°C and 128.5 to 140°C were made. System parameters examined include: esterification times (tE) for UR, settling time (tS) after esterification and temperature (T). Properties of acid value (AV), iodine value (IV), kinematic viscosity (KV), density (ρLO) and water content (mW) of jatropha oil and ester product were measured. The esterification conversion efficiencies (η) were determined and assessed. An η of 99.35% was obtained in temperature interval of 108.9 to 120°C with 5mL per dose for 20 doses and tE of 167.39min (denoted as Process U120-5), which is slightly higher than η of 98.87% in temperature interval of 75 to 120°C with 25mL per dose for 4 doses and tE of 108.79min (noted as Process U120-25). The jatropha ester produced via sequential UR and dose of 5mL possess AV of 0.24mg KOH/g, IV of 124.77g I2/100g, KV of 9.89mm2/s, ρLO of 901.73kg/m3 and mW of 0.3wt% showing that sequential UR and dose at higher temperature interval can give higher reduction of AV compared with 36.56mg KOH of original oil. The effects of tS and tE on AV are of minor and moderate importance, respectively. The combined effects of auto-induced temperature-rise of UR, temperature higher than boiling point of methanol used and micro-mixing and emulsification caused by UR/cavitation improve the esterification extent.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers|
|State||Published - Jul 2014|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors gratefully acknowledge the National Science Council of Taiwan for supporting this study. Mr. Cesar Augusto Andrade-Tacca also greatly thanks the Ministry of Education of Taiwan (TMOE) and the National Taiwan University (NTU) for the grants supporting his study at the Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering of NTU.
- Acid value
- Jatropha oil
- Methyl ester
- Ultrasonic irradiation