Investigating the provenance of iron artifacts of the Royal Iron Factory of São João de Ipanema by hierarchical cluster analysis of EDS microanalyses of slag inclusions

Elmer Antonio Mamani Calcina, Fernando José Gomes Landgraf, Cesar Roberto De Farias Azevedo

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5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Microstructural characterization techniques, including EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis) microanalyses, were used to investigate the slag inclusions in the microstructure of ferrous artifacts of the Royal Iron Factory of São João de Ipanema (first steel plant of Brazil, XIX century), the D. Pedro II Bridge (located in Bahia, assembled in XIX century and produced in Scotland) and the archaeological sites of São Miguel de Missões (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, production site of iron artifacts, the XVIII century) and Afonso Sardinha (São Paulo, Brazil production site of iron artifacts, XVI century). The microanalyses results of the main microconstituents of the microstructure of the slag inclusions were investigated by hierarchical cluster analysis and the dendrogram with the microanalyses results of the wüstite phase (using as critical variables the contents of MnO, MgO, Al2O3, V2O5 and TiO2) allowed the identification of four clusters, which successfully represented the samples of the four investigated sites (Ipanema, Sardinha, Missões and Bahia). Finally, the comparatively low volumetric fraction of slag inclusions in the samples of Ipanema (∼1%) suggested the existence of technological expertise at the ironmaking processing in the Royal Iron Factory of São João de Ipanema.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)119-129
Number of pages11
JournalMaterials Research
Volume20
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2017

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
F. J. G. Landgraf and C. R. F. Azevedo would like to thank the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) for the research grant. The authors also would like to express their gratitude to the Historian P. E. M. Ara?jo (Institute of Geosciences, Unicamp, Brazil); to Prof. R. Ramos and Mr. R. A. Azevedo (Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); to Dr.-Ing. A. H. Feller; to Prof. B. Dedavid and Prof. E. H?ttner (both from the Pontif?cia Universidade Cat?lica, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil); to MEng. M. F. Moreira and Dr. T. Yonamine (Institute for Technological Research); to Prof. Dr. A. C. Neiva, MEng. R. R. Maia, Mr. V. Santos and Prof. T. N. Bittencourt. (Polytechnic School, University of S?o Paulo); and to Mr. L. B. Regalado (Floresta Nacional de Ipanema, Instituto Chico Mendes de Conserva??o da Biodiversidade, Minist?rio do Meio Ambiente do Brazil). Finally, the authors dedicate this work to the memories of Prof. M. D. Andreatta, whose pioneer work on the Ipanema site allowed the collection and preservation of significant historical artifacts, and Mr. A. C. Azevedo.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos. All rights reserved.

Keywords

  • Archaeometallurgy
  • Hierarchical cluster analysis
  • Microstructural characterization
  • Royal Iron Factory of São João de Ipanema
  • Slag inclusions

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