After 3. years of mild gases emissions, the Ubinas volcano entered in a new eruptive phase on September 2nd, 2013. The MIROVA system (a space-based volcanic hot-spot detection system), allowed us to detect in near real time the thermal emissions associated with the eruption and provided early evidence of magma extrusion within the deep summit crater. By combining IR data with plume height, sulfur emissions, hot spring temperatures and seismic activity, we interpret the thermal output detected over Ubinas in terms of extrusion rates associated to the eruption. We suggest that the 2013-2014 eruptive crisis can be subdivided into three main phases: (. i) shallow magma intrusion inside the edifice, (ii) extrusion and growing of a lava plug at the bottom of the summit crater coupled with increasing explosive activity and finally, (iii) disruption of the lava plug and gradual decline of the explosive activity. The occurrence of the 8.2. Mw Iquique (Chile) earthquake (365. km away from Ubinas) on April 1st, 2014, may have perturbed most of the analyzed parameters, suggesting a prompt interaction with the ongoing volcanic activity. In particular, the analysis of thermal and seismic datasets shows that the earthquake may have promoted the most intense thermal and explosive phase that culminated in a major explosion on April 19th, 2014.These results reveal the efficiency of space-based thermal observations in detecting the extrusion of hot magma within deep volcanic craters and in tracking its evolution. We emphasize that, in combination with other geophysical and geochemical datasets, MIROVA is an essential tool for monitoring remote volcanoes with rather difficult accessibility, like those of the Andes that reach remarkably high altitudes.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
MIROVA is a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy), and is supported by the Italian Civil Protection Department . Additional funds were provided by MIUR, Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Torino and Fondazione Compagnia di San Paolo di Torino . The seismic study was financed by the APNOP Meta 022 and the PP068 Meta 007 of the OVS-Instituto Geofísico del Perú . We acknowledge L. Wilson for the editorial handling. We thank, S. Byrdina and J.F. Lénat for their constructive comments. We are grateful to D. Hill for discussions and suggestions on an early version of this manuscript. We particularly thank M. Alvarez and J. Acosta for field observations. We acknowledge the LANCE-MODIS system ( http://lance-modis.eosdis.nasa.gov/ ) for providing Level 1B MODIS data. This is IPGP contribution number: 3644. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
© 2015 Elsevier B.V..
- Extrusion rate
- Iquique earthquake
- Thermal anomalies