The microstructure of the main structural elements (Phoenix columns, transver-sal beams and tie-rods) of the Simón Bolivar iron bridge, located in Arequipa (Peru), was investigated. The bridge was supposedly designed by Gustave Eiffel and opened to the public in 1882. The characterisation revealed that the columns, beams and tie-rods are made of puddled iron (ferritic matrix of equiaxial grains and numerous slag inclusions). The tensile properties were estimated by hardness and nanohardness measurements, and the tensile strength varied between 285 and 390 MPa and the Young's modulus from 187 to 198 GPa. The components of puddled iron with the same provenance, Phoenix Iron Company, showed typical variations in the chemical composition and microstructure of the slag inclusions. The microanalysis results of the slag inclusions indicated that the wüstite phase presented qualitatively the same composition with pronounced variations in the ratio between V2 O5 and TiO2 contents, confirming that a single parameter cannot be used to determine the provenance of iron artefacts. The intense presence of slag inclusions in the puddled iron components (~ 10% in volume fraction) heterogeneously distributed in the iron illustrates the technological limits of the iron refining technique of the time.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was funded by the National University of San Agust?n de Arequipa, Vice-Rectorate for Research, with the title: ? Evaluaci?n de la cor-rosion, analisis microstructural y de composici?n de la estructura de hierro forjado del Puente Simon Bolivar (Pu-ente de Fierro) construido el siglo XIX en la ciudad de Arequipa? (N? Contrato IAI-021-2018-UNSA). Professor Cesar R. F. Azevedo would like to thank the Brazilian National Council for Scien-tific and Technological Development (CNPq) for his research grant (Process: 302077/2016-2).
This work was funded by the National University of San Agustín de Arequipa, Vice-Rectorate for Research, with the title: “ Evaluación de la corrosion, analisis microstructural y de
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- Archaeological heritage of Peru
- Microstructural characterisation
- Puddled iron
- Simón Bolívar bridge