Spatial skills and perceptions of space: Representing 2D drawings as 3D drawings inside immersive virtual reality

Hugo Cesar Gomez Tone, Jorge Martin-Gutierrez, John Bustamante-Escapa, Paola Bustamante-Escapa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Rapid freehand drawings are of great importance in the early years of university studies of architecture, because both the physical characteristics of spaces and their sensory characteristics can be communicated through them. In order to draw architectural spaces, it is necessary to have the ability to visualize and manipulate them mentally, which leads us to the concept of spatial skills; but it also requires a development of spatial perception to express them in the drawings. The purpose of this research is to analyze the improvement of spatial skills through the full-scale sketching of architectural spaces in virtual immersive environments and to analyze spatial perception in reference to the capture of spatial sensations in virtual immersive environments. Spatial skills training was created based on the freehand drawing of architectural spaces using Head Mounted Displays (HMD) and registered the spatial sensations experienced also using HMD, but only in previously modeled realistic spaces. It was found that the training significantly improved orientation, rotation and visualization, and that the sensory journey and experimentation of architectural spaces realistically modeled in immersive virtual reality environments allows for the same sensations that the designer initially sought to convey.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1475
Pages (from-to)1-23
Number of pages23
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2 Feb 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was funded by Universidad Nacional de San Agust?n de Arequipa, grant number IBA-IB-01-2019-UNSA.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • 3D drawing
  • Architecture
  • Immersive virtual reality
  • Sketching
  • Spatial perception
  • Spatial skills


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