Spectral reconstruction of kilovoltage photon beams using generalized simulated annealing

Jorge Homero Wilches-Visbal, Danny Giancarlo Apaza-Veliz, Patrícia Nicolucci

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


To unfold the energy spectrum of two kilovoltage (kV) X-ray beams from transmission curves through a mathematical methodology based on Laplace transform and the generalized simulated annealing algorithm. Energy spectra of photon beams and transmission data were associated by means of a mathematical expression derived from the analytical solution of Laplace transform. Transmission data was calculated by relating the air kerma of the attenuated beams, passing through aluminium plates of different thickness, to that of the non-attenuated beam. Generalized simulated annealing function, developed in an early work, was employed to find the parameters of the expression and so determine the spectra. Validation of the methodology was done by the comparison of the half-value layers obtained from transmission curves and the spectra. The mean square percentage error between transmission data and fitting curve of each spectrum defined from the parameters found was lower than 1% indicating a good adjustment. The same error was observed when the first half-value layer (HVL) from the transmission curves and those of each reconstructed spectrum were compared. Calculation time of parameters was 5 sec for 80 kV and 14 sec for 120 kV. In no case, non-realistic solution of energy spectra was obtained. These results were better than an early work where leastsquares were used. The reconstruction methodology based on generalized simulated annealing employed in this manuscript can efficiently derive the spectra of two X-ray beams with comparable accuracy to previous work. A limitation is that validation was not done by comparing data with the equipment's spectra.

Translated title of the contributionReconstrucción espectral de haces de fotones de kilovoltaje por medio de recocido simulado generalizado
Original languageEnglish
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2022
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 International Journal of Health Sciences. All rights reserved.


  • Generalized simulated annealing
  • Inverse reconstruction
  • Photon spectra
  • Transmission curves


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