OBJECTIVE: To generate normative data for the Stroop Word-Color Interference test in Spanish-speaking pediatric populations. METHOD: The sample consisted of 4,373 healthy children from nine countries in Latin America (Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Puerto Rico) and Spain. Each participant was administered the Stroop Word-Color Interference test as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. The Stroop Word, Stroop Color, Stroop Word-Color, and Stroop Interference scores were normed using multiple linear regressions and standard deviations of residual values. Age, age 2, sex, and mean level of parental education (MLPE) were included as predictors in the analyses. RESULTS: The final multiple linear regression models showed main effects for age on all scores, except on Stroop Interference for Guatemala, such that scores increased linearly as a function of age. Age 2 affected Stroop Word scores for all countries, Stroop Color scores for Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, and Spain; Stroop Word-Color scores for Ecuador, Mexico, and Paraguay; and Stroop Interference scores for Cuba, Guatemala, and Spain. MLPE affected Stroop Word scores for Chile, Mexico, and Puerto Rico; Stroop Color scores for Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Spain; Stroop Word-Color scores for Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Puerto Rico and Spain; and Stroop-Interference scores for Ecuador, Mexico, and Spain. Sex affected Stroop Word scores for Spain, Stroop Color scores for Mexico, and Stroop Interference for Honduras. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest Spanish-speaking pediatric normative study in the world, and it will allow neuropsychologists from these countries to have a more accurate approach to interpret the Stroop Word-Color Interference test in pediatric populations.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
aBioCruces Health Research Institute, Cruces University Hospital, Barakaldo, Spain bDepartment of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA cNational Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery INN, Havana, Cuba dEscuela de Ciencias Psicológicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras eUniversidad Católica San Pablo, Arequipa, Peru fDepartamento de investigación, Psicología, Universidad Enrique Díaz de León, Guadalajara, Mexico gCIMCYC-The Mind, Brain and Behaviour Research Centre, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain hEscuela de Psicología, Universidad de Las Américas, Quito, Ecuador iInstituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía, MVS, Ciudad de México, Mexico jDepartment of Health Psychology, University of Alicante, Spain kDepartamento de Psicología, Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, Guatemala City, Guatemala lDepartment of Psychology, Universidad Loyola Andalucía, Sevilla, Spain. mUniversidad Interamericana de Puerto Rico, Recinto de San Germán, Puerto Rico nMindpedia Centro de Psicología Avanzada, Monterrey, México. oUniversidad Autónoma de Asunción (UAA), Asunción, Paraguay pLaboratorio de Psicofisiología, Facultad de Ciencias Humanas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Mexicali, Mexico qUniversidad Internacional de la Rioja (UNIR), Logroño, Spain rResearch Center CERNEP, Almeria University, Almería, Spain sUniversidad de la Frontera, Temuco, Chile tIKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao, Spain
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- Spanish-speaking populations
- Stroop Word-Color Interference test
- pediatric population