The brown rot caused by the fungus Monilinia spp. is the main disease of peach (Prunus persica) that occurs from flowering to post-harvest fruit. The objective of this study was to identify the species that causes brown rot in Rio Grande do Sul state using molecular method based on specific primers and study the morphological variability of Monilinia isolates using classic characterization methods. The isolates were collected in the main producing regions of peaches and determination of species was performed by using specific primers to the genus Monilinia. The culture media BDA?, peach juice and Pagnocca were used for the morphological characterization of isolates. Molecular study showed that all isolates from Rio Grande do Sul are the species M. fructicola. In the morphological characterization, such as mycelial diameter, color, margin, shape and elevation of the colonies and dry mass of mycelium, there are variability in the analyzed characteristics of the isolates in the three-culture media used. In the comparing the culture media, the higher dry matter values and diameter of colony isolates were obtained in Pagnocca and peach juice means.
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