Blastocystis is one of the most common protozoa in the human gut and a zoonotic organism related to unsanitary living conditions. This protozoon shows a broad distribution, unclear symptomatology, and undefined pathogenicity. In Peru, studies report the presence of Blastocystis in many regions, but the highest prevalence levels are reported in Arequipa. The aim of this study was to link Blastocystis infection with social determinants of health. We recruited and surveyed 232 infected and uninfected participants from houses with at least one Blastocystis-infected person. All samples were concentrated by spin concentration method in saline solution, examined by wet mount under light microscopy and confirmed with methylene-stained stool smear. We found a human Blastocystis prevalence of 51.3% in the study sample. We also found statistical associations between Blastocystis infection and peri-urban location in the city as well as the use of alternative non-domiciliary water supplies, suggesting these are risk factors for human Blastocystis infection.
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